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Agronomic characterization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) progeny from close and distant self-fertilized s5 simple crosses

Ernesto Chura, Ángel Mujica, Bettina Haussmann, Karl Smith, Silvia Flores, Ada Luz Flores

Abstract


The present research was carried out at the research and production center (CIP) of Camacani. The objective was to agronomically characterize the self-fertilized S5 progeny originating from simple crosses that were genetically distant and close. We worked with six genetically distant simple crosses, Huariponcho × Kancolla, Salcedo INIA × Huariponcho and Pasankalla × Kancolla, and three genetically close crosses, Salcedo INIA × Pink Pandela, Negra Collana × Kancolla and Salcedo INIA × Negra Collana. Seeds were obtained from a plant breeding program by hybridization, and molecular markers were used to estimate genetic distances for the generation of new cultivars. The results show that the highest plant height occurred for the cross Pasankalla × Kancolla, with 93.39 cm, followed by Salcedo INIA × Pandela Rosada, with 88.88 cm, and the lowest height was presented by the cross Negra Collana × Kancolla, with 69.50 cm. The largest diameter of the stem occurred for the Pasankalla × Kancolla cross, with 14.49 mm, followed by the cross Salcedo INIA × Pandela Rosada, with 13.49 mm; the cross Negra Collana × Kancolla presented the smallest stem diameter, with 9.70 mm. The longest panicle length was recorded for the cross Pasankalla × Kancolla, with 28.45 cm, followed by Salcedo INIA × Pandela Rosada, with 27.49 cm, and the shortest panicle length occurred for the cross Salcedo INIA × Negra Collana, with 24 cm. The largest panicle diameter was presented by the cross Pasankalla × Kancolla, with 8.73 cm, followed by Salcedo INIA × Pandela Rosada, with 7.73 cm, and the smallest panicle diameter was presented by the cross Negra Collana × Kancolla, with 5.75 cm. The best 1,000 grain weight was presented by the cross Salcedo INIA × Negra Collana, with 3.80 g and a grain diameter of 2.20 mm, followed by the cross Salcedo INIA × Huariponcho, with 2.48 g and a grain diameter of 1.78 mm and the lowest 1,000-grain weight was presented by the cross Negra Collana × Kancolla, with 2.09 g and a 1.64 mm grain diameter. The best yield was obtained by the cross Huariponcho × Kancolla, with 5,099.28 kg ha-1, followed by the cross Salcedo INIA × Huariponcho, with 5,064.71 kg ha-1; the lowest yield was presented by Collana Negra × Kancolla, with 2,836.55 kg ha-1.


Keywords


Crosses, genetic improvement, progeny self-fertilization, quinoa

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7764/rcia.v46i2.2142

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