Physical and spectroscopic characterization of Pakistani honey. Cien. Inv. Agr. 35(2):199-204.

Saif-ur Rehman, Zia Farooq Khan, Tahir Maqbool


Honey is a naturally sweet and viscous fluid produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from the nectar of flowers that, by definition, does not include any other substances. The objectives of this work were to characterize Pakistani honey, physically and chemically in relation to international standards, and to study the effects of adulteration with sugar syrup on the physical properties of honey. For this purpose, 200 honey samples obtained from 15 different locations in Pakistan, ranging from desert to hilly areas, were collected in 2005-2006. Samples were prepared by the acid digestion method. Physical properties, conductance, surface tension, and pH were determined using digital instruments. The most abundant minerals found in Pakistani honey samples were K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co, with K accounting for almost 83% of the total mineral composition. Most Pakistani honey samples met international standards. However, some samples showed altered parameters, reflecting possible adulteration. A considerable change in viscosity was observed only in adulterated honey samples containing more than 50% of a saturated sugar solution.


Acid digestion, AAS, honey adulteration, honey, major and minor elements, physical properties.

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