Heavy metal and other trace elements contents in honey bee in Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. (in English) 33(1):50-58.

C. Fredes, G. Montenegro

Abstract


Forty seven honeys collected between IV and X Administrative Region of Chile, were studied to determine the presence of the following 11 trace elements Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Two different methods based on different types of organic matter decomposition procedures were used. The first method consisted of acid digestion and the second one of a high temperature dry oxidation. Element determination was performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In spite of the fact that both methods detected the 11 trace elements, the second method had more resolution than the first one, with the exception of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn. The elements with the highest frequency were Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The high Al content was found to be related to beehives located in trumaos soils in Southern Chile and also with honeys stored in aluminum jars. On the other hand the high Fe, Mn and Zn contents were found to be related to hualputra (Lotus uliginosus) honeys and with multiflora honeys collected in the V and X Administrative Regions of Chile. Cadmium and Pb, the two most dangerous heavy metals for human health were found in 14.9% and 34.0% respectively of the studied samples. Their maximum residues limit was below that of the European Standards.

 

Para la determinación de 11 elementos traza (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb y Zn) en 47 mieles colectadas entre la IV y X Región de Chile se adaptaron y evaluaron dos métodos de determinación basados en diferentes tipos de destrucción de la materia orgánica: digestión húmeda ácida y oxidación seca. La determinación de los elementos, para ambos métodos de análisis, se hizo mediante espectrometría de emisión óptica de plasma inductivamente acoplado (ICP-OES). Si bien ambos métodos permitieron la determinación de los 11 elementos, el Método 2 presentó mayor sensibilidad, salvo para el Cd, Pb, Ni y Zn. Los elementos que se encontraron con mayor frecuencia en las mieles analizadas fueron Al, Fe, Mn y Zn. Los mayores contenidos de Al se asociaron a mieles provenientes de colmenares cercanos a suelos trumaos del sur de Chile y al almacenaje de la miel en envases de Al. Los mayores contenidos de Fe, Mn y Zn se presentaron en mieles provenientes de hualputra (Lotus uliginosus) y poliflorales de la V y X región. Cadmio y Pb, considerados como los metales pesados con mayor impacto sobre la salud humana, se encontraron en un 14,9% y 34,0% de las muestras analizados y bajo los límites máximos permitidos de acuerdo a los estándares europeos.


Keywords


Al, electrical conductivity, heavy metals, honey, ICP-OES, pH, Sr, conductividad eléctrica, metales pesados, mieles.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7764/rcia.v33i1.328