Breeding improvement of fennel genotypes of different origins (Foeniculum vulgare L.) using morphological and yield parameters

Mahmut Çamlıca, Gülsüm Yaldiz


Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) is a reputed spice plant and is used as an industrial medicinal plant due to its pharmaceutical and food applications, exhibiting a wide array of genetic variations depending on morphological and yield properties. Along with the current study, thirty-two different fennel genotypes and five local genotypes from Turkey were used to determine the morphological and yield properties in 2017 and 2018. A wide range of variation in plant height (39.22-129.60 cm), 1000 fruit yield (1.92-7.70 g), and fruit yield (0.12-8.68 g) was observed. As deduced from previous reports and from the current findings of the study, those relevant parameters could be considered for breeding purposes. To visualize or clarify the findings, a dendrogram was constructed to reveal the genetic variability regarding the morphological and yield properties of fennel genotypes. The dendrogram revealed that genotypes of different origins occurred in different groups, but local genotypes collected from Turkey occurred in the same group and subgroup. Additionally, correlation analysis was carried out to reveal the relationships between the relevant agronomic parameters. Of those correlation coefficients, a high correlation coefficient was noted between the number of fruits and fruit yield (r=0.849). Overall, the findings of the study revealed notable genetic variation related to fruit yield and other relevant agronomic traits for fennel genotypes, suggesting that this remarkable variation might be used for selecting superior genotypes in breeding programs. Of the genotypes analyzed, Ames30289 was the best genotype due to the highest fruit yield according to two successive years. Consequently, the findings can be considered useful information for fennel breeders, researchers and farmers in Turkey or other countries.


Augmented design, dendrogram analysis, fennel, genetic diversity

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