Resistance assessment of grapevine rootstocks used in Chile to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne ethiopica, M. hapla, and M. javanica

Erwin Aballay, Oscar Vilches

Abstract


The rootstocks 1103 P, 101-14, K 5BB, SO4, and 3309 were assessed to determine their resistance to the three common Meloidogyne species present in Chilean vineyards, M. ethiopica, the most frequent species, M. hapla and M. javanica. Their response was compared to three ungrafted cultivars, Thompson Seedless, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. To perform this study, two month-old plants produced from cuttings were inoculated with 5,000 eggs per 3-L pots, filled with steamed substrate and kept in a glasshouse covered with a black mesh to intercept 30% of sun light and avoid heating of the substrates. After a growth period of six months, plants were removed from the pots, and resistance was determined by measuring root weights, the number of galls and eggs per g of root, and second stage juveniles per 250 cm3 of soil. Results showed that the five rootstocks were resistant to the parasitism of the three Meloidogyne species, since their reproduction was limited and differed from two of the cultivars. Chardonnay was the most susceptible cultivar, mainly to the high level of parasitism by M. ethiopica, while Pinot Noir was moderately susceptible and Thompson Seedless showed the lowest susceptibility.

Los portainjertos 1103 P, 101-14, K 5BB, SO4, 3309, de uso frecuente para la plantación de vides en Chile, fueron evaluados para determinar su resistencia a tres especies de nematodos del género Meloidogyne, M. ethiopica, la especie de mayor frecuencia en viñedos en Chile, M. hapla y M. javanica. Junto con ello se evaluó la susceptibilidad de tres cultivares no injertados, Thompson Seedless, Pinot Noir y Chardonnay. Para ello, al inicio de la primavera, plantas nuevas de 2 meses de desarrollo producidas a partir de estacas, cultivadas en macetas de 3 L con sustratos estéril, fueron inoculadas con 5.000 huevos por maceta y mantenidas en un sector habilitado con malla raschel durante 6 meses. Para determinar su resistencia, al término del período de cultivo las plantas se sacaron de las macetas y se determinó su peso radical, número de agallas por masa de raíz, cantidad de huevos por gramo de raíz y número de juveniles de segundo estado en el suelo. Los resultados mostraron que los cinco portainjertos se comportaron como resistentes al ataque de las tres especies de Meloidogyne. De las variedades cultivadas, Chardonnay mostró una alta susceptibilidad, especialmente frente a M. ethiopica, Pinot Noir se comportó moderadamente susceptible, en tanto que, Thompson Seedless mostró una resistencia moderada.

 


Keywords


Plant-parasitic nematodes, root pests, Vitis vinifera, vineyards, Nematodos fitoparásitos, plagas de raíces, viñas

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